If you’ve wondered about the effects of modafinil on your bipolar disorder, this article is for you. This article explores the effects of modafinil on central neurotransmitter systems and how it may affect your bipolar disorder. This article also provides an overview of the cognitive benefits of Modalert for people who are bipolar and looking to improve their brain health.
Effects of Modafinil and Armodafinil on central neurotransmitter systems
While the effects of modafinil on the central nervous system are largely unproven, research suggests that it may enhance the release of serotonin. Furthermore, it may inhibit the production of a certain enzyme, CYP2C9. The drug’s ability to suppress CYP2C9 activity in the brain may explain its powerful wakening and ant oxidative effects. In addition, modafinil can affect a number of other P450 enzymes, including CYP2C9.
While there are a number of studies examining modafinil’s effects on the brain, most focus on its extracellular mechanisms. While modafinil is known to enhance the tone of neurons and synaptosomes, its effect is not direct. The drug also does not directly affect neurons, but increases neurotransmitter release by targeting an intracellular protein or receptor.
Central neurotransmitter systems
In a recent study, the effects of modafinil on narcoleptic patients were associated with significant improvements in cognitive performance on the Pauli test. This study also looked at the effects of modafinil on LORETA and EEG activity. The results also revealed that modafinil enhanced the performance of patients on episodic recognition memory and working memory tasks.
In another study, Aguirre JA and Kurose H found that acute modafinil treatment protected male black mice from developing nigral lesions in the hippocampus. This study was published in the Neurosci Lett journal, Neurosci Lett 275. In a follow-up study, Aoki C and Kurose H found that acute modafinil treatment significantly improved sleep quality and prevented nigral lesions. These results were confirmed by immunocytochemical localization of noradrenergic receptors in the monkey dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.
These findings suggest that Waklert increases spontaneous and electrically evoked glutamate efflux in human frontal cortex slices. Modafinil does not affect 5HT reuptake or synthesis, but rather may have indirect effects on these systems. The effects of modafinil on GABA appear to be through the stimulation of H1 receptors, which are implicated in its cognitive effects. Interestingly, the adrenergic effect of modafinil on GABA could be due to its modulatory effects on these neurotransmitters.
Modafinil’s cognitive effects on bipolar disorder
Although studies on the effect of Modvigil on bipolar disorder have focused on sleep and fatigue, the drug’s cognitive effects may also be significant for this condition. Bipolar disorder patients are not typically able to recover completely between episodes and the persistent problems with circadian sleep and daytime activity may contribute to their continued functional disability. In a study designed to evaluate these cognitive effects, researchers will use a placebo-controlled 8-week trial design to test modafinil’s efficacy in bipolar disorder patients.
The cognitive symptoms associated with bipolar disorder are often mistaken for symptoms of ADHD. In reality, though, about 15% of bipolar disorder patients have comorbid ADHD. In addition, the onset of ADHD symptoms can mimic those of bipolar disorder, since they include restless energy and prominent distractibility. Furthermore, speech exhibited by people with ADHD is choppy and frenetic. Interestingly, the cognitive deficits of bipolar disorder patients resemble those associated with aging.
Modafinil’s cognitive effects on central neurotransmitter systems
The study that first described the cognitive effects of modafinil focuses on the LC/NE system. In a study of young adults, modafinil enhanced pupillary dilation parameters, a signal that is consistent with LC phasic responses to task-relevant events. It uses the Aston-Jones and Cohen model to explain these effects. This study also shows that propranolol attenuates modafinil-induced arousal.
Using a single-dose of modafinil, this drug improved the performance of people with medication-free narcolepsy. This study also reported improvements in the Strop interference test and in the prefrontal-dependent measure of major depression. However, the researchers were unable to compare modafinil with other antidepressants for its effects on cognitive performance.
The cognitive effects of modafinil in healthy adults and sleep-deprived individuals are promising. They show improvements in episodic and working memory, and they are associated with an increased rate of attention, vigilance, and neural activity. The benefits are consistent with other cognitive enhancement drugs and may be related to their primary effects on catecholaminergic systems. Further, these effects are also associated with a decrease in pre-potent responses.