· Centralized model:
The football clubs transfer their rights to a central body, which is in charge of negotiating and agreeing with the television platforms the amount and the operating conditions. Likewise, the clubs agree with said body how the income from this sale will be distributed. The advantages of this intermediation are obvious to some: the distribution is usually very equitable for all teams and exploitation through this system allows the benefits obtained to be democratized. With this model, the size of each club is respected and it is possible to increase income annually. In the European context, it is evident that a large majority of countries have opted for this route. This is not only the case in France and England, but also in Greece, Belgium, Scotland and Poland.
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· Individualized model:
Televisions and football clubs agree among themselves the amount of the sale of their retransmission rights. In this way, it is about avoiding any intermediary that sets the price or the conditions of the sales contract, lowering the prices by proposing batches of matches that are much less attractive than if the broadcasters themselves had the content available. That is, there is in this case a correlation between supply and demand; in such a way that the amount set in the agreements will be subject to the money that a soccer team wants to request, and to which an operator is willing to pay for it. This is the case of Spain and, until recently, of Italy 3.
On an international scale, and above all in Europe, the centralization of retransmission rights negotiations constitutes the most widespread model, to the extent that it does not violate article 81 of the 1957 Treaty of Rome, which prevents any concerted practice that attempts, restricts or distort free competition. But to avoid unnecessary conflicts, the European Commission has also tested different distribution formulas between payment and open operators, and thus prevents exclusive sales from interfering with the development of new technological platforms on the Internet or the third generation of mobile telephony. Another fundamental aspect of these models, which is common to both, is the partitioning of rights into different packages.
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· The French model
In the French model, the centralization of retransmission rights is clear. In less than forty years, there has been a shift from decentralization -sometimes completely anarchic- to a centralization of rights impossible to dissociate from market logic.
France is also a pioneer country in terms of business management control and supervision systems. Each sports activity is organized and managed by a Federation (art. 131-8 of the Sports Code), while the Leagues have as their main vocation the marketing of their rights. Hence, in order to 무료스포츠중계 any event, the television networks must address a single interlocutor: the professional leagues, which, ultimately, constitute the ‘legal monopolists’ of the rights 4 and, in application of these provisions, the French Football Federation (FFF) has entrusted its marketing to the French Football League (LFP).